A “beer style” or “style of beer” is typically a term used to categorize beers by considering a variety of factors. Common factors include the appearance, flavor, ingredients, origin, history, and production method. One of the first official styling structures was created by Michael Jackson, the writer not the pop star, in his 1977 book The World Guide to Beer. His work was advanced by Fred Eckhardt in 1989 with the publication of The Essentials of Beer Style.
Unfortunately, there is no universally agreed-upon list of beer styles which can make it difficult to unequivocally identify certain types of beer. Along with the popular publications of Jackson and Eckhardt, other commonly used style guidelines are based upon popular beer competitions. They include the World Beer Cup, CAMRA (Campaign for Real Ale), BJCP (Beer Judge Certification Program), and the Brewing Industry International Awards.
Styling by Location
The first way to determine the style of the beer is by looking at its origin. The geographic origin of a beer plays a significant role in determining what ingredients are used, what the original flavor profile is, and may affect the brewing process. For example, there is a noticeable difference between an American, English, and Belgian IPA. The same is true for all types of beers.
Styling By Ingredients & Brewing Process
Another popular way to determine the style of a beer is by focusing on the ingredients and the brewing process. Any number of ingredient combinations can churn out a different beer based upon the brewing process. Similar to styling by location, styling by ingredients in the brewing process can be difficult as well. It has become even more complicated with the introduction of hybrid beers.
A Breakdown of Common Beer Styles
With all this in mind, there are still a handful of different types of beer which are readily agreed upon. Here is a quick look at the most common styles found in the United States (from light to dark)
The pilsner is not only the most popular styles of beer in the world, it’s also the youngest. It is a light, clean and simple pale lager. Usually a light to golden yellow, the pilsner features a strong hoppy flavor that is both fragrant and slightly bitter.
2. Wheat Beer
Wheat beers are actually similar to some of the first brewed beers. They are a mixture of barley and wheat grains and have very little hops presence. They are typically cloudy in appearance and the range of flavors is significant depending on the type of wheat used. Traditionally, this style of beer accounts for many popular summer and spring seasonal brews.
3. Brown Ale
The brown ale typically has a dark brown or amber color. Historically, it is an extremely old style of beer whose history can be traced back to un-hot ales. They typically have a higher malt level which gives them an earthier and less bitter flavor. Brown ales may also have a slightly sweet flavor.
4. Pale Ale
The pale ale is one of the most popular beer styles in the world. Made by a warm fermentation method and pale malt, this style has a wide range of flavor and strength. In the UK, a pale ale has a strong malty flavor whereas in the United States it has more hops.
5. India Pale Ale
The India Pale Ale, also commonly referred to as an IPA, comes from the 1700’s when English troops lived in India. Additional hops were added to their typical beer to keep it from spoiling before their ship reached Indian shores. This style is known to have a strong hoppy flavor with a slightly bitter taste. The color of an IPA can range from a light golden yellow to a darker red amber.
A bock beer is stronger than your average beer. This popular beer style has a robust malt flavor. The bock originates from German monasteries where it was used as sustenance during Lenten fasts, but is now commonly brewed all around the world.
Orginally brewed in London in the 18th century, the porter is a very dark style of beer. A porter includes roasted malts or roasted barley, and are typically mild beers with hints of chocolate and toffee.
Stouts are always 100% opaque and are consistently the darkest beers. The head of a stout beer is extremely thick and usually brown. They have a controversial history, however it is widely believed that the stout style originally derived from porters. They feature a heavily roasted flavor and often contain hints of chocolate, licorice, molasses, or coffee.
What’s your favorite type of beer? I’d love to hear your thoughts in the comments below.